copper yields and ore grade
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copper yields and ore grade

Some observations on copper yields and ore grades ...

01/03/2012  Fig. 14 compares the copper head grade of milled ore with ‘copper equivalent’ head grades in 2000 and 2009 for individual mines. The copper head grade is shown on the horizontal axis and the ‘copper equivalent’ grades on the vertical. For each mine copper equivalents are calculated by weighting the content of each product in the milled ore by its price relative to that year's copper price.

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Some observations on copper yields and ore grades ...

The average copper content of ore deposits is usually below the average yield of the ore accessed in the early years of production. The initial grades of new mines have not declined over the past forty years, and there has been no perceptible tendency for the average grade of porphyry deposits brought into production to decline over time. There is no apparent correlation between average grade ...

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Some observations on copper yields and ore grades ...

The average copper content of ore deposits is usually below the average yield of the ore accessed in the early years of production. The initial grades of new mines have not declined over the past forty years, and there has been no perceptible tendency for the average grade of porphyry deposits brought into production to decline over time. There is no apparent correlation between average grade and

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Some Observations on Copper Yields and Ore Grades

01/03/2012  On the basis of the equation, an ore grade of 0.5, 0.4 and 0.3% at 300 m of depth results in an energy cost of 60, 127 and 447 MJ/kg to obtain a 30%+

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Some observations on copper yields and ore grades ...

Yields are have been consistently lower in North America than elsewhere, and Latin American average grades have trended downwards, reflecting both the ageing of mines and the rising share of production from porphyry deposits. Typically the yield of mines declines over time as mining proceeds. The average copper content of ore deposits is usually below the average yield of the ore accessed in ...

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EconPapers: Some observations on copper yields and ore

Some observations on copper yields and ore grades. Phillip Crowson. Resources Policy, 2012, vol. 37, issue 1, 59-72 Abstract: The paper examines trends in the average copper content of mined ores over the years. It has tended to decline over the long term, but by no means evenly. US averages are not typical of global averages, at least in the past four decades. Those have been both higher, and ...

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Copper - Specifications, Properties, Classifications and ...

17/05/2005  Yield Strength of Copper. The yield point for coppe r alloys is not sharply defined. As a result it tends to be reported as either a 0.5% extension under load or as 0.2% offset. Most commonly the 0.5% extension yield strength of annealed material registers as approximately one-third the tensile strength. Hardening by cold working means the material becomes less ductile, and yield strength

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The world’s top 10 highest-grade copper mines -

20/02/2017  First Quantum’s CLC copper deposit is exceptionally rich, and with ore reserves grading 5% copper it is believed to be the highest-grade open-pit active copper

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Common Basic Formulas for Mineral Processing

For example, a perfect copper concentrate for an ore containing copper only as chalcocite would run 79.8% copper, but if the smelter is best equipped to handle a 36% copper concentrate, then for milling purposes 36% copper may be considered the perfect grade. Similarly, in a zinc ore containing marmatite, in which it is known that the maximum possible grade of zinc concentrate is 54% zinc,

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Mineral Deposit Value - How to Calculate the Potential ...

Average Grade: The concentration of a mineral in the ore body (i.e. % or g/t) 2% copper and 1.5 gram per tonne gold: Strike Length: The length in which the mineralization is found in the ore body (horizontally) 500 meters: Depth: The depth in which the mineralization is found in the ore body (vertically) 200 meters: Width

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Some observations on copper yields and ore grades ...

Yields are have been consistently lower in North America than elsewhere, and Latin American average grades have trended downwards, reflecting both the ageing of mines and the rising share of production from porphyry deposits. Typically the yield of mines declines over time as mining proceeds. The average copper content of ore deposits is usually below the average yield of the ore accessed in ...

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Copper extraction - Wikipedia

Copper ores containing chalcopyrite can be concentrated to produce a concentrate with between 20% and 30% copper-in-concentrate (usually 27–29% copper); the remainder of the concentrate is iron and sulfur in the chalcopyrite, and unwanted impurities such as silicate gangue minerals or other sulfide minerals, typically minor amounts of pyrite, sphalerite or galena. Chalcocite concentrates typically

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The world’s top 10 highest-grade copper mines -

First Quantum’s CLC copper deposit is exceptionally rich, and with ore reserves grading 5% copper it is believed to be the highest-grade open-pit active copper mine worldwide. CLC is located ...

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Metals from Ores: An Introduction

characteristic crystalline form. Ores are a mixture of minerals: they are processed to yield an industrial mineral or treated chemically to yield a single or several metals. Ores that are generally processed for only a single metal are those of iron, aluminium, chromium, tin, mercury, manganese, tungsten, and some ores of copper. Gold ores

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Understanding Grades of Copper Scrap ASM Metal

#2 Copper. This grade of copper can be identified by its somewhat dirty appearance. It should be comprised of miscellaneous unalloyed wire, pipe or solid metal that continues to have solder, paint or any kind of coating on it. Additionally, its minimum copper content should be 94-96%. In order to qualify for this grade, wire must be bare of insulation and be thinner than a 16th of an inch in diameter. The ends and fittings of #2 copper

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Mineral Deposit Value - How to Calculate the Potential ...

Average Grade: The concentration of a mineral in the ore body (i.e. % or g/t) 2% copper and 1.5 gram per tonne gold: Strike Length: The length in which the mineralization is found in the ore body (horizontally) 500 meters: Depth: The depth in which the mineralization is found

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Disruptive Metallurgy for Cleaner, Greener Battery Metals ...

The increased copper yield results in lower unit costs of production. “Second, because it enables the exploitation of low-grade ores, it results in mine lives being extended through the conversion of resources into reserves by converting waste streams and uneconomic deposits into valuable assets,” Mora said.

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Common Basic Formulas for Mineral Processing

For example, a perfect copper concentrate for an ore containing copper only as chalcocite would run 79.8% copper, but if the smelter is best equipped to handle a 36% copper concentrate, then for milling purposes 36% copper may be considered the perfect grade. Similarly, in a zinc ore containing marmatite, in which it is known that the maximum possible grade of zinc concentrate is 54% zinc, there would be

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Properties: An Introduction to Copper

Copper is tough and ductile, but is valuable due its ability to conduct electricity. While it is suited to many applications most centre around its excellent electrical conductivity (e.g. busbars and electric wire). Other uses utilise its corrosion resistance (e.g. water pipes and heat exchangers).

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Green Energy Reality Check: It's Not as Clean as You Think ...

09/07/2020  While ore grades vary widely, copper ores typically contain only about a half-percent, by weight, of the element itself: thus, roughly 200 tons of ore are dug up, moved, crushed, and processed to get to one ton of copper. For rare earths, some 20 to 160 tons of ore are mined per ton of element. For cobalt, roughly 1,500 tons of ore are mined to get to one ton of the element. In the calculus of ...

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Some observations on copper yields and ore grades ...

Yields are have been consistently lower in North America than elsewhere, and Latin American average grades have trended downwards, reflecting both the ageing of mines and the rising share of production from porphyry deposits. Typically the yield of mines declines over time as mining proceeds. The average copper content of ore deposits is usually below the average yield of the ore accessed in ...

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Learning Goals: -What is an ore deposit?

which will help you to decide where to drill. Copper grade is the concentration of copper in the ore rock. To calculate the grade of copper for the sample, geologists use the equation: (amount of copper metal/amount of copper ore rock)*100 2. If a deposit area has 200lbs of copper in 10,000lbs of ore rock, what is the grade? 200/10000*100=2% 3. If a deposit area has 6 tons of copper in 1,000 tons of ore

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Copper Smelting Chemistry Tutorial

A typical copper ore contains between 0.5% and 2.0% copper. A high grade ore produces a high yield of metal. A low grade order produces a low yield of metal. Copper can be extracted from sulfide ores (usually higher grade ores) by direct smelting. The earliest evidence of copper smelting occurs in Serbian artefacts dating from around 5000 BC. Copper can be extracted from oxide ores using ...

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Copper Mining and Extraction: Oxide Ores

The process used to treat sulfide copper ores begins at the mine site, where the copper-bearing minerals are physically separated from the rest of the rock. The flow diagram below shows how the percentage of copper increases as the ore is refined, first physically by froth flotation, then chemically by smelting and finally electrolytic refining. The smelting stage gives the name pyroprocessing ...

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Metals from Ores: An Introduction

characteristic crystalline form. Ores are a mixture of minerals: they are processed to yield an industrial mineral or treated chemically to yield a single or several metals. Ores that are generally processed for only a single metal are those of iron, aluminium, chromium, tin, mercury, manganese, tungsten, and some ores of copper. Gold ores

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Resources Free Full-Text Decreasing Ore Grades in ...

In general, a decrease of ore grades can be discerned, whether the mine has a high initial copper ore grade, such as Neves-Corvo (Portugal) or Mount Isa (Australia), or a lower copper ore grade, such as Aguablanca (Spain), Telfer (Australia) or El Tesoro (Chile). For example, El Soldado copper mine (Chile) had an average oxide ore grade in 2003 of 1.7% and in 2012 the average ore grade was ...

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Calculation of Ore Tonnage Grade from Drill hole

19/03/2017  The area of each prism, which is given in the figure, was calculated by the method just outlined and the results of the calculation of tonnage and grade of the ore content are shown in the accompanying table of calculations. When the trapezoid is divided in this way the two prisms contain 3,099,788.15 metric tons of ore with a metallic content of 55,440.00 tons of copper, or a grade of

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9 Ore Deposits and Economic Minerals – Mineralogy

Ores and ore minerals vary greatly in quality. Ideal ores contain 100% ore minerals. Such ores do not exist, but some come close. Ideal ore minerals contain 100% of the commodity of interest. Native copper, for example, is an ideal copper ore mineral. Ideal ore minerals are, however, uncommon. The most commonly mined ores are not ideal. Instead they are rich in ore minerals that can be processed

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Green Energy Reality Check: It's Not as Clean as You Think ...

09/07/2020  While ore grades vary widely, copper ores typically contain only about a half-percent, by weight, of the element itself: thus, roughly 200 tons of ore are dug up, moved, crushed, and processed to get to one ton of copper. For rare earths, some 20 to 160 tons of ore are mined per ton of element. For cobalt, roughly 1,500 tons of ore are mined to get to one ton of the element. In the calculus of ...

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What Makes a World Class Silver Deposit? INN

Copper-lead or Copper-lead-zinc Ores. These supply only marginal amounts of silver, and are relatively unimportant. Zinc Ores. These ores contain at least 25 percent zinc. These yield little gold...

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